From the Editors 29 (2011)Engineer and Editor Juan Hart Moved El Paso Forward 29 (2011)Elizabeth Garrett: Songbird of the Southwest 29 (2011)A Passionate Life: Josephine Clardy Fox 29 (2011)Forgotten No More: Korean War POW Tells Story of Survival 29 (2011)Janice Woods Windle Treasures Family History 29 (2011)Andy and Syd Cohen: The Men Behind the Name 29 (2011)Leona Ford Washington Preserved Black History 29(2011)Ingeborg Heuser Brought Professional Ballet to City 29 (2011)Lee and Beulah Moor Left Legacy of Love 29 (2011)
From the Editors 28 (2010)Chasin’ Away the Blues: Texas Sunday Legislation 28 (2010)Simeon Hart Pioneered Local Industry 28 (2010)Felix Martinez: Southwestern Renaissance Man 28 (2010)Teresa Urrea: La Santa de Cabora Inspired Mexican Revolution 28 (2010)Utopia in Mesilla: The Shalam Colony 28 (2010)Stahmann Farms Produce Pecans on Two Hemispheres 28 (2010)Betty Mary Goetting Brought Birth Control to El Paso 28 (2010)Maud Sullivan Made El Paso Public Library a Cultural Center 28 (2010)Lucy Acosta’s Legacy Continues in LULAC 28 (2010)Belen Robles: Voice for the Latino Community 28 (2010)Toltec Club: Of Ghosts and Guests 28 (2010)
Strong Women Building a Strong City -- From the Editors 27(2008)Notable Women of El Paso 27(2009)The Chew Legacy: The Story of Herlinda Wong Chew 27(2009)Desert Nightingale: Louise Dietrich 27(2009)1909-2009: YWCA Celebrates 100 Years in El Paso 27(2009)Mabel Welch: El Paso’s First Female Architect 27(2009)Myrna Deckert Remains Modest About Achievements 27(2009)Suzie Azar Still Reaches for the Sky 27 (2009)The Moocher: Callie Fairley, First Woman Vice Detective in El Paso 27(2009)Alicia R. Chacón Came to Politics Naturally 27 (2009)Rosa Guerrero: Cultural Dynamo 27 (2009)
From the Past to the Present -- From the Editor 26 (2007/08)Yandell Boulevard Named for Prominent El Paso Physician 26 (2007/08)Japanese Immigrants Came Slowly to Borderland 26 (2007/08)World War II Affected Japanese Immigrants 26 (2007/08)Living, Breathing New Mexico Ghost Town: Hillsboro 26 (2007/08)Canutillo Developed from Land Grant 26 (2007/08)Rómulo Escobar Zerman: Juárez Agronomist and Teacher 26 (2007/08)El Paso Mayor: Tom Lea Jr. 26 (2007/08)Ted Karam: Lebanese Immigrant Lived American Dream 26 (2007/08)Publication Credits 26 (2007/08)
From the Director 25 (2006)First El Paso Protestant Church: St. Clement's 25 (2006)Bowie High School: Always a Bear 25 (2006)Golden Gloves Grew Out of El Paso's Love of Boxing 25 (2006)LULAC Fought Hard to Guarantee Rights 25 (2006)El Paso Women Gained Power in LULAC 25 (2006)McKelligon Canyon: From Cattle to Culture 25 (2006)Tortugas Celebrates Virgen de Guadalupe, San Juan 25 (2006)Bataan Death March and POW Camps 25 (2006)Bataan Survivors Recall Horrors 25 (2006)Anthony Family Had Five Sons in World War II 25 (2006)Sober on the Border 25 (2006)Clyde W. Tombaugh: Farm Boy Reached for the Stars 25 (2006)A Taste of Southwest Wine 25 (2006)
From the Director 24 (2005)From the Editors 24 (2005)Gypsie Davenport and May Palmer Ran Infamous Brothels 24 (2005)Pioneer Attorney William Burges Tackled Unpopular Issues 24 (2005)Richard Fenner Burges: Renaissance Man 24 (2005)Charles Kelly Wielded Power with Political 'Ring' 24 (2005)Tom Charles Wanted World to Know White Sands 24 (2005)Dripping Springs has Rich History 24 (2005)Thomas B. White Directed Innovative La Tuna for 19 Years 24 (2005)Cowboys on the Range --- Missile Range, That Is 24 (2005)Ranchers vs. the Feds: The McNew Saga 24 (2005)Mexican Repatriation in 1930s 24 (2005)White House Department Store 24 (2005)Thomason Hospital Celebrates 90 Years 24 (2005)R.E. Thomason Shaped City, State, Nation 24 (2005)
Postcards from the Past Editor's Column 23 (2004)From the Editors 23 (2004)Solomon C. Schutz Helped Bring Law and Order to El Paso 23 (2004)James Gillett Showed Courage in El Paso 23 (2004)Jim White Explored Carlsbad Caverns for Years 23 (2004)Ben Lilly: Mountain Man of the Southwest 23 (2004)Aldo Leopold Proposed Land Ethics 23 (2004)Escontrias Ranch: A Link to Hueco Tanks Park 23 (2004)Hueco Tanks is Site of Controversy 23 (2004)Marcelino Serna Became World War I Hero 23 (2004)Sam Dreben Soldiered All Over the World 23 (2004)Kern Place Neighborhood: The Man Behind the Name 23 (2004)Farah Manufacturing Now Just a Memory 23 (2004)Texas Knights of Columbus Began in El Paso 23 (2004)
Look for Us on the Web - Editor's Column 22 (2003)From the Editors 22 (2003)Victorio Fought to the Death for Homeland 22 (2003)O. T. Bassett and Charles R. Morehead 22 (2003)S. H. Newman: Pioneer Newspaperman Fought Vice 22 (2003)Elfego Baca Lived More Than Nine Lives 22 (2003)Woman's Club Has Long Served City 22 (2003)Cathedral's Beauty Pleases 22 (2003)Albert J. Fountain's Achievements Eclipsed by Mysterious Death 22 (2003)Albert B. Fall's Career Ended in Disgrace 22 (2003)Cloudcroft Baby Sanatorium Saved Many 22 (2003)Dale Resler Worked Hard for El Paso 22 (2003)Price's Dairy Still Family Owned 22 (2003)Woodlawn Bottling Brought Pepsi to Town 22 (2003)Union Depot Witnessed Growth of El Paso 22 (2003)
We're Now on the Web --From the Editor 21(2002)From the Editors 21(2002)Downtown Opium Dens Attracted Many 21(2002)Juneteenth Celebrates Freedom for Texas Slaves 21(2002)Black Cowboys Rode the Trails, Too 21(2002)Ku Klux Klan Had Short Life in El Paso 21(2002)Mining Became Big Business in Southwest 21(2002)Smeltertown Still Exists in Memories 21 (2002)El Paso Played Important Role in the Mexican Revolution 21 (2002)Pancho Villa Led Northern Forces in Revolution 21 (2002)Soldaderas Played Important Roles in Revolution 21 (2002)Pershing, Villa Forever Linked to Columbus 21 (2002)Cristeros Became Mexican Martyrs 1926-1929 -- 21 (2002)Houchen Settlement House Helped New Arrivals 21 (2002)Otis A. Aultman Captured Border History in Pictures 21 (2002)
Hot Springs Have Long HistoryThe Building of a City -- From the Editor 20 (2001)From the Staff (Volume 20)Pat Garrett Enjoyed Controversy 20 (2001)Marshal Dallas Stoudenmire Terrorized Town 20 (2001)History Reveals Rivalry of Madams Etta Clark and Alice Abbott 20 (2001)Kohlberg, Krupp, Zielonka Became Business and Civic Leaders 20 (2001)Olga Kohlberg Pioneered Many Local Organizations 20 (2001)Henry Trost's Architectural Legacy Lives On 20 (2001)Sunset Heights Preserves History 20 (2001)Adolph Schwartz Built Local Retail Dynasty 20 (2001)Zach T. White Brought Progress to El Paso 20 (2001)Masons Became Leaders in Texas, El Paso 20 (2001)Smallpox Epidemic Showed Need for Hospitals20 (2001)El Paso High School Remains Classic 20 (2001)Bhutanese Architecture Distinguishes UTEP Campus 20 (2001)Elephant Butte Dam Solved Early Water Problems 20 (2001)
Pioneer Ranch became Concordia Cemetery 19 (2000)El Paso Grows Up 19 (2000)From the Staff 19 (2000)Chinese Immigrants Helped Build Railroad in El Paso 19 (2000)Volunteer Fire Department Grew into Professional Company 19 (2000)1880s Brought First Theaters to Town 19 (2000)Sisters of Charity Began Hotel Dieu Hospital 19 (2000)Tuberculosis Turned El Paso Into a Health Center 19 (2000)First Public School Built in 1884 19 (2000)Enigmatic Olivas Aoy Began School for Mexican Children 19 (2000)El Paso Public Library Began Modestly 19 (2000)Jesuits Continue to Influence Area 19 (2000)Sisters of Loretto Have Long Tradition in Southwest 19 (2000)Mormons Found Sanctuary in Mexico in 1880s 19 (2000)Mennonite Colonies in Mexico Accept Change Slowly 19 (2000)Flu Epidemic of 1918 Hit El Paso Hard 19 (2000)Early City Planners Saw Future in Scenic Drive 19 (2000)Prohibition Stimulated Economies of El Paso, Juárez 19 (2000)
The Editor's Column : The Building of a City 18 (1999)From the Editors 18 (1999)Magoffinsville Had Lasting Influence on El Paso 18 (1999)Town of El Paso Grew from Pioneer Settlements 18 (1999)Downtown El Paso Is Monument to Anson Mills 18 (1999)1848 War With Mexico Created Southwest 18 (1999)Colonel Doniphan and Volunteers Won Battle of Brazito 18 (1999)Gadsden Purchase Clarified U.S. Boundaries 18 (1999)Early Fort Bliss Occupied Pioneer Sites 18 (1999)Henry O. Flipper Paved Way for Integration of Military 18 (1999)Buffalo Soldiers Defended Western Frontier 18 (1999)El Paso Was Midpoint of Overland Mail Service 18 (1999)Salt War of 1877 Divided Southwest Residents 18 (1999)Geronimo Led Final Fight 18 (1999)Apache Indians Defended Homelands in Southwest 18 (1999)Texas Rangers Helped Keep Order on Frontier 18 (1999)Sarah Bowman and Tillie Howard: Madams of the 1800s 18 (1999)El Paso Grew Up with Arrival of Railroad 18 (1999)
Aztecs Ruled Complex, Rich Society 17 (1998)From the Editor 17 (1998)Aztec Beliefs Helped Conquer Mexico 17 (1998)Cortés Created New Order in Mexico 17 (1998)La Malinche Remains Controversial 17 (1998)Cabeza de Vaca: Travels in Texas 17 (1998)Estebán Furthered Legend of Cíbola 17 (1998)Coronado Searched for Cities of Gold 17 (1998)Oñate Conquered Desert to Explore Southwest 17 (1998)Festival Celebrates Oñate's Historic Arrival 17 (1998)Fray Garcia Left Great Legacy 17 (1998)Franciscans Brought Catholicism to Area 17 (1998)America's First Highway: El Camino Real 17 (1998)Pueblo Revolt Brought Tiguas South 17 (1998)Tigua Indians Survive 300 Years of Ordeals 17 (1998)Area Missions are Part of Living History 17 (1998)San Elizario Presidio Protected Settlers 17 (1998)Ethnic Terms Can Cause Confusion 17 (1998)
Oasis Restaurants Symbolized ‘50s Teen Scene 13 (1995)‘50s Cars Changed American Lifestyle And Image 13 (1995)Chevy Bel Air Charmed 1950 Car Buyers 13 (1995)San Jacinto Plaza Remains Heart Of Downtown El Paso 13 (1995)Smokey Bear: A Legend Is Made 13 (1995)El Paso's Company E Survivors Remember Rapido River Assaults 13 (1995)Company E Survivor Recalls Days As Prisoner Of War 13 (1995)El Paso Red Cross Essential to War Effort 13 (1995)World War II Took its Toll On The Home Front 13 (1995)Civil Air Patrol Protected Border During World War II -- 13 (1995)Quickie Divorces Granted in Juárez 13 (1995)Atomic Bomb Developed In Southwest 13 (1995)Former Crew Members On B-17s Remember Tough Times 13 (1995)Vintage Warplanes Keep Past Alive 13 (1995)The Cavalry Bugler: Essential To Horse and Man 13 (1995)Sun Carnival 1936 Style 13 (1995)H. Arthur Brown: El Paso Symphony Guru Of The ‘30s -- 13 (1995)Swing Music Helped Dispel The Blues Of The ‘30s and ‘40s -- 13 (1995)The General Store: A Hidden Treasure Of The Past 13 (1995)
Change on the Border 15 (1997)From the Editor 15 (1997)Latinos Work To Change Stereotypes In Hollywood 15 (1997)Cesar Chávez: Simple Man, People’s Hero 15 (1997)Shelter For Farm Workers Becomes Reality 15 (1997)Women’s Shelter Helps To Heal The Pain 15 (1997)Home Schools Become Popular Alternative 15 (1997)Renovation May Revive Downtown El Paso 15 (1997)Title IX Changed Women's Sports 15 (1997)Special Olympics Shine In El Paso 15 (1997)La Fe Clinic Serves South El Paso 15 (1997)ASARCO Works To Clean Up Its Act 15 (1997)A Growing Phenomenon: Single Fathers 15 (1997)Stepfamilies Become More Numerous 15 (1997)Teens Rebel Against Authority 15 (1997)Comics Retain Popularity 15 (1997)Tom Moore And Archie Have Timeless Appeal 15 (1997)
Life on the Border: 1950s & 1960s --14 (1996)From The Editors 14 (1996)A Baseball Team By Any Other Name 14 (1996)Drive-In Theaters Appealed to all Ages 14 (1996)El Paso Trolley First to Connect Two Nations 14 (1996)Barbie Doll Revolutionized Toy Industry 14 (1996)Rabies Took Bite of Sun City 14 (1996)Rabies: A Deadly Virus 14 (1996)Border Patrol Used Variety of Methods to Control Immigration 14 (1996)L. A. Nixon Fought Texas Voting Law 14 (1996)Douglass School Served Black Community Well 14 (1996)Thelma White Case Forced College Integration 14 (1996)Steve Crosno: An El Paso Original 14 (1996)Rock 'N' Roll Defined Teen Culture 14 (1996)A Shopping Mall by the People for the People 14 (1996)Chamizal Dispute Settled Peacefully 14 (1996)Turney Mansion Becomes Work of Art 14 (1996)First Hispanic Mayor Elected in 1957 -- 14 (1996)Flower Children Chose Alternative Lifestyle 14 (1996)
Three Decades of History 12 (1994)From the Editors 12 (1994)The Plaza Theater…Here to Stay!? 12 (1994)El Paso Broadcasting: The Stories Behind the Call Letters 12 (1994)Alphabet Agencies: FDR's Brainstorm 12 (1994)Chihuahuita in the 1930s: Tough Times in the Barrio 12 (1994)Hobo Sign Language Targeted El Paso 12 (1994)Self- Sufficiency Key to Farmers' Survival During Depression 12 (1994)Hanna's Story A Holocaust Survivor Remembers 12 (1994)Former Members Recall Life in Hitler Youth 12 (1994)German Prisoners of War Interned at Fort Bliss During World War II -- 12 (1994)German POWs Remembered at Fort Bliss 12 (1994)One German POW's Story 12 (1994)Ration Books and Victory Gardens: Coping with Shortages 12 (1994)Women Changed Wartime Work Patterns 12 (1994)Bracero Program Hurt Domestic Farm Workers 12 (1994)San Pedro Pharmacy Retains Look of the Past 12 (1994)Teenage Fashions of the Nifty Fifties 12 (1994)Rebel Image of Motorcyclists Set in 1950s -- 12 (1994)
Border Customs and Crafts From the Editor 10 (1992)From the Editors 10 (1992)King on the Mountain 10 (1992)Piñatas! 10 (1992)How to Play the Piñata Game 10 (1992)Out of a Cotton Boll Bloom Beautiful Crafts 10 (1992)Cotton Boll Entertains Too 10 (1992)Hands That Create Art and Soul 10 (1992)La Charreada - Mexican Horsemanship 10 (1992)Boots - A Family Tradition 10 (1992)Some Boys Still Grow Up to be Cowboys 10 (1992)Boot Capital of the World 10 (1992)The Magic of Mariachis 10 (1992)Ballet Folklorico - High School Style 10 (1992)New Generation of Mariachis 10 (1992)The Lady is a Bullfighter 10 (1992)The Midwife: Choices for Border Women 10 (1992)Retablos: Echoes of Faith 10 (1992)Tigua Indians: Dancing for St. Anthony 10 (1992)The Aztec and the Miracle 10 (1992)A Hispanic Girl's Coming of Age 10 (1992)Art - Low and Slow 10 (1992)Wedding Traditions on the Border 10 (1992)
Border Food Folkways From the Editor 9 (1991)From the Staff 9 (1991)Tortillas: Border Staff of Life 9 (1991)The Booming Tortilla Industry in Mexico 9 (1991)Where's The Beef? In El Paso! 9 (1991)How Do I Love Thee, Piggy? Let Me Count the Ways! 9 (1991)Tamales By Any Other Name Remain The Same 9 (1991)Rio Grande Thanksgiving 9 (1991)The Tigua Indians: Food for Thought 9 (1991)Corn: The Golden Gift from Our Ancestors 9 (1991)Border Pottery - Function and Beauty 9 (1991)Holy Hot Mole! 9 (1991)Looking Back at the Chile Pepper 9 (1991)Men Behind the Chile Pepper 9 (1991)Hot Peppers : They're Not Just for Eating 9 (1991)Food, Spices Double as Folk Cures 9 (1991)Weeds or Edible Desert Plants? 9 (1991)Cactus: It's Good for You! 9 (1991)Day of the Dead Celebrates Spiritual Tradition 9 (1991)Nutricious, Delicious Beans 9 (1991)Menudo Makes The Big Time 9 (1991)Mediterranean Cuisine: Old Tradition, Fresh Idea 9 (1991)Lenten Foods: From Fasting to Fabulous 9 (1991)Tarahumaras Rely on Nature for Food 9 (1991)Tempting Sweet Breads : Pan de Dulce 9 (1991)
Border Customs and Crafts II From the Editor -- 11 (1993)From the Editors 11 (1993)The Best Little Asaderos in Texas 11 (1993)Glass Work Disappearing on Border 11 (1993)Cockfights Legal in Surrounding Areas 11 (1993)Local Craftsmen Keep Art of Saddlery Alive 11 (1993)James and Joseph Magoffin: El Paso Pioneers 11 (1993)Chile Ristras Brighten Border Homes 11 (1993)Magoffin Home Preserves El Paso's Past 11 (1993)Bavarian Custom Celebrated in El Paso: Oktoberfest 11 (1993)Munich on the Border 11 (1993)Santo Niño de Atocha Called Miracle Worker 11 (1993)Lenten Customs Vary 11 (1993)To Ask is to Receive 11 (1993)Border Maintains Tradition of Posadas 11 (1993)A Visit from Three Kings 11 (1993)Matachines: Soldiers of the Virgin 11 (1993)Dichos Are an Intricate Part of Mexican Culture 11 (1993)Cultural Superstitions Affect Behavior 11 (1993)Que Onda Homeboy! Why Do We Talk Like This? 11 (1993)Traditional Hispanic Children's Games Disappear 11 (1993)
El Paso Women to ResearchEl Paso Women to Research (by name)El Paso Men to ResearchEl Paso Men to Research (by name)
From the Editors 30 (2012)From the Editor, Credits and Contents 30 (2012)Jessie Hawkins and Jenna Welch: Love, Loss and Laughter 30 (2012)Woodrow Wilson Bean: One in a Million 30 (2012)David L. Carrasco Gave Back to Hometown 30 (2012)Cleofas Calleros Made Local History Important 30 (2012)Robert E. McKee: From Rags to Riches to Philanthropy 30 (2012)Kate Moore Brown: A Woman of Many Firsts 30 (2012)Fun in the 1890s: The McGinty Club 30 (2012)
Borderlands Web Issue From the Editor 31(2013/14)Acknowledgements 31(2013/14)Mother Praxedes Carty: Serving God by Serving Others 31(2013/14)Carrie Tingley Hospital and the Couple Behind It 31 (2013/14)Harvey Girls Changed the West 31(2013/14)Jake Erlich: A Big Man in Many Ways 31(2013/14)Vernus Carey: Mr. YMCA 31(2013/14)
Borderlands 32 Tolerance. From the Editors and Acknowledgements 32(2014/15)Henry Kellen Created El Paso Holocaust Museum 32(2014/15)Bicycle Padre Still Working 32(2014/15)El Paso Connections: Ambrose Bierce: writer 32(2014/15)Mysterious Deaths: Bobby Fuller, Rock Icon 32(2014/15)Mysterious Deaths: Tom Ogle, Inventor 32(2014/15)Jake Erlich: A Big Man in Many Ways 32(2014)Harvey Girls Changed the West 32(2014)
Borderlands 33 Service. From the Editors and Acknowledgements 33(2015)Nothing Is Impossible: Major General Heidi V. Brown 33 (2015)Local Latino Soldiers Receive Medal of Honor Decades after Heroism 33 (2015)Vernus Carey: Mr. YMCA 33 (2015)Will the Real Leon Blevins Please stand up? 33 (2015)Carrie Tingley Hospital and the Couple Behind It 33 (2015)Mother Praxedes Carty: Serving God by Serving Others 33 (2015)
Borderlands 34 Inspiration. From the Editors and Acknowledgements 34(2016/17)Building Bridges Instead of Walls: Temple Mount Sinai 34 (2016/17)Ruben Salazar: A Bridge Between Two Societies 34 (2016/17)Luis Jimenez: Art Creates Dialogue 34 (2016/17)Richard "Tuff" Hedeman: The Michael Jordan of Professional Bull Riding 34 (2016/17)Rescue Mission of El Paso Provides Food and Opportunity 34 (2016/17)
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Solomon C. Schutz Helped Bring Law and Order to El Paso

Article first published in Vol. 23, 2004.

By Gretchen Dickey and Sara Flores

solomon Schutz and familyIn 1880, El Paso, Texas, was a rough, wide-open town of 736 residents. However, its neighbor across the river, El Paso del Norte , Chihuahua, Mexico, had over 10,000 residents. It was a turbulent time with heated racial unrest, cattle rustling, horse stealing, Indian raids and a few prostitutes and gamblers who had already made the small village their home.

Image caption: Solomon Schutz, El Paso's third mayor & prominent merchant, raised a large family in El Paso. Photo courtesy of Janet Conk

People came and went between the two countries easily, making outlaws even more difficult to apprehend. It would take a man by the name of Solomon Charles Schutz to begin the process of bringing law and order to a town that had earned the unfortunate name of "Hell Paso."

Solomon's uncles, Samuel and Joseph Schutz, had come to the border city then called Franklin in 1854 and 1859, respectively, becoming the first Jewish men to arrive here. Samuel and Joseph opened a general merchandise store called S. Schutz and Bro. on San Francisco Street, located on the site of the Arts Festival Plaza near the current Museum of Art, writes historian Fred Morales in his book, History of Downtown El Paso Vol. 1.

Solomon Schutz, nephew of Samuel and Joseph, was born in Westphalia, Germany, in 1846. He came to El Paso from New York by stage and by foot in 1865. Solomon married Frieda Heiman from Germany and had five children: Adelia, Alfred, Henry, Will and Amy. Masonic records show that another daughter died at three months of age and is buried in the Masonic section of Concordia Cemetery. Solomon Schutz became the postmaster of El Paso in 1875. In a June 25, 1916, El Paso Times article, Solomon reminisced about how excited the citizens of Franklin were as they anxiously awaited the arrival of the stage bringing the monthly mail.

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When bandits continually robbed the stagecoach of the payroll intended for the troops stationed at Fort Bliss, Schutz came up with a solution to foil the robbers. He developed the system of check payments to the troops and implemented the first money order division.

Receipt letter heads for S. & A. Schutz & Bro.

After his stint as postmaster, Solomon Schutz opened a general store called S. & A. Schutz with his brother Albert and another store across the Rio Grande in Paso Del Norte, present-day Juárez, Chihuahua, going into direct competition with his uncles. Solomon Schutz contracted with a young man also from Westphalia, Ernst Kohlberg , to work in his stores to pay for his passage and to learn merchandising. 
 
Image caption: Receipt letter heads for S. & A. Schutz & Bro. show that two stores existed during the time of the
Salt War. Courtesy of El Paso Masonic Lodge 130 Receipt letter heads for S. & A. Schutz & Bro.

In the Southwestern Studies monograph entitled Letters of Ernst Kohlberg, the young man described a dispute between Solomon's uncles, who owned S. Schutz & Bro. general store, and Solomon and Albert, who owned S. & A. Schutz mercantile.

Kohlberg wrote: They have been bitter enemies for a number of years and they are also at outs with some other cousins. One cannot imagine a greater hate than that they hold for each other. My bosses induce wholesalers from St. Louis and Santa Fe to come here to sell goods in order to ruin their uncle's wholesale trade. The uncles on the other hand sell retail at wholesale prices to spoil our business and to embarrass us with our customers. In this way this jumbles [sic] of relatives seek to annoy each other and to make their lives miserable. This bitter feeling disturbs social intercourse in such a small community and makes it harder to live here.

Disputes among the families were not the only problems for Solomon. Schutz. In 1877, he served as the U. S. Commercial Agent (Consul) at Paso del Norte, Mexico. In letters written to the 45th U. S. Congress a report entitled "El Paso Troubles in Texas (EPT)" Solomon repeatedly asked for government protection and intervention in various situations.

Kohlberg writes about one such incident that occurred when he was working in Solomon's store in Paso Del Norte. Colonel Paulino Machorro, head of the 2nd Regiment of the Mexican Infantry, twice entered the Plaza and levied a "prestamo," or forced loan of $100 to $300 from businessmen to sustain his position and to pay his troops. The second time, the merchants had no money, so Machorro tried to extort money from the peasants. They took up arms against Machorro, leaving three of his men dead and several wounded.

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Solomon Schutz was called in to mediate. The mediation failed when the citizens of Paso del Norte demanded that Machorro totally surrender. He fled, swimming the Rio Grande to El Paso, Texas, almost drowning. After writing several letters to Washington reporting this incident, Schutz ended letter No. 9 EPT with yet another plea for protection:

"The American and other foreign citizens on this side mainly look to me for protection of life and property, but not having an "exequatur" or official recognition, nor being able to threaten any lawless bands with United States military power, I am afraid I will not be in a position to render them much assistance ... . In the mean time, I shall do everything in my power, as far as my official position will warrant, to protect American interest."

The violence continued on the border, and Schutz would find himself in the middle of what Leon Metz, in El Paso Chronicles called "the bloodiest civil disorder in the county's history."

In a long-standing political scheme that came to be known as the "Salt War", Luis Cardis and Judge Charles Howard became entangled in a feud which came to a head in 1877. The two were once business associates in the Guadalupe salt beds. The Italian Cardis spoke fluent Spanish and became the champion of Mexicans who had always visited the salt beds for their needs. Howard came to El Paso in 1872 and for a while, joined Cardis and his associates, but when Howard filed a claim for the salt beds, he and Cardis parted ways. Sides had been established along racial lines. On October 10, 1877, Howard found Cardis in S. Schutz and Bro. (Samuel and Joseph's store) and killed him with a shotgun. < /p> Two months later in San Elizario , Howard and several other men were brutally killed by a group of Mexicans as the Salt War continued. Even Company C of the Texas Rangers, led by John Tays, surrendered to the angry mob. Once more left without protection, Schutz continued to plead with the U. S. government for help.

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The Secretary of War sent troops from Fort Bayard, Fort Stanton and Fort Davis, and a ragtag posse was formed, mostly with volunteers from Silver City, N.M. The defeated Company C of Texas Rangers regrouped, and C. L. Sonnichsen writes that "the invasion of San Elizario got underway." Murders, executions and rapes were committed in the name of revenge. Although a Congressional investigation of the Salt War ensued, no one was tried or even arrested. The report, however, would become part of the "El Paso Troubles."

In 1878, Fort Bliss was reestablished and the men drilled in the downtown El Paso plaza. Nevertheless, Solomon Schutz wrote in a letter to Congress that "should these forces be withdrawn, no American in El Paso County would be allowed to live long, as repeated threats have been made against many of the prominent citizens."

Even though the Salt War was now over, the growing problem of the desperados who found sanctuary in the border town would continue to escalate. Metz writes that Masonic lodge members met in the home of Solomon Schutz instead of their rented meeting room "for safety, security, privacy and comfort" because of the danger inherent in public gatherings.

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In 1880, Solomon Schutz became the city's third mayor. Anticipating the arrival of five railroads, El Paso was a breeding ground for a multitude of unsavory characters. Saloons began to pop up on every corner and gambling houses, opium dens and brothels became the order of the day. Businessmen and city leaders all wore six-shooters for protection, and the James Boys and rustler leader John Kinney were household names as they went throughout the town shooting those who opposed them. 

In the 1916 interview with the Times, Schutz explained that the citizens were tired of the outlaws, so a league of about 35 men, including Colonel F. B. Cotton, Major Noyes Rand and Adolph Krakauer, joined together in an attempt to bring order. They met in secret by candlelight and oil lamps, planning how to establish order in the town that had no established law.

Schutz hired ex-ranger John B. Tays as El Paso's first marshal. With no budget to pay the new marshal, Schutz used the fines received in the Recorder's Court to pay Tays. But Tays was hopeless as a marshal, and he was fired four months later when he was asked to repair a hole on San Francisco Street and did so by filling it with trash. Mayor Schutz then appointed George Campbell as marshal in December of 1880.

When "armed thugs" went through town on New Year's Day 1881, shooting into the homes of Mayor Schutz and some of his aldermen, Campbell did nothing to stop them. Schutz and Campbell argued, and Campbell challenged his boss with a gun. An angry Schutz sent Deputy Bill Johnson and some rangers to arrest him. Metz writes, "The officers sympathized with the marshal, and chuckled when Campbell scribbled obscenities across the warrant and then spat on it." Campbell resigned after charges were dropped.

It did not take long for Schutz and the council to realize that one marshal was not able to handle the enormous problems of El Paso. The city fathers wrote to Governor O.M. Roberts, requesting that a company of Texas Rangers be stationed in El Paso. The city council went on to point out that the railroads were about to enter the city, and the area was swamped with "hoards of vagabonds, gamblers, burglars, thieves and particularly murderers."

On April 11, 1881, the mayor swore in another marshal, ex-Texas Ranger Dallas Stoudenmire, who immediately fired the ineffectual deputy, Bill Johnson, and made his presence known. Three days later, the marshal was on the street when he saw a gunfight between former lawmen and their friends. Within seconds, four men were dead, three of them by Stoudenmire's guns. The citizens of El Paso took notice that the law had come to town. Now Schutz could turn his attention to the most important moment in El Paso's history.

On May 13, 1881, Mayor Schutz welcomed the Southern Pacific to El Paso. Even though the railroad would bring in all sorts of unsavory people, a foundation for law and order had been established in El Paso. The town had its first banks, several newspapers and a water company.

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Solomon Schutz, his aldermen and the Texas Rangers had weathered four of the roughest years in El Paso's history, and the town had not only survived but prospered. Schutz served as Mayor until August 9, 1881, when Joseph Magoffin replaced him.

Solomon Schutz remained an active Mason and served as the 12th Worshipful Master from 1879 to 1884. Nancy Hamilton says that Schutz demonstrated his generosity and compassion during his 1879 installation by introducing a small green bag symbolizing the collection of funds for charities. In 1883, Schutz redeemed lodge property that had been auctioned off.

His daughter Adelia and E. G. Williams began the El Paso Piano Company in 1896, located at the Solomon Schutz residence at 217 Myrtle Avenue. In the beginning, the pianos came to town by rail and were transferred to horse-drawn carts for delivery to the store or the customer's home.

The company was the first in El Paso to carry the popular pipe organs when they became available. The company also installed the Wurlitzer organ in the Plaza Theater. (The organ is now at Sunland Park Mall food court.) In 1904, Schutz's son Will went into the family business and bought out Williams in 1908.

In 1898, Solomon Schutz became a member of the newly established Temple Mt. Sinai, the first Jewish Temple in El Paso. El Paso Scottish Rite records indicate that Solomon lived in Mexico in 1908 but returned prior to the Mexican Revolution.

Will Schutz converted to Catholicism, and during World War I, he Americanized the family name to Shutes because of negative feelings toward Germany. The Shutes Piano Company stayed in family hands until 1981, when it closed.

Solomon Schutz died on May 21, 1925, while visiting his daughter Amy in California, and was buried at Concordia Cemetery in the Jewish section. At the time of his death, he was the honorary president of the El Paso County Pioneers' Association.

A handful of men who came to El Paso before the railroad remained to help build the city. Men like Solomon Schutz carved out their future in the dusty streets of this border town and worked to establish a safe community that others could call home. 

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